1) Meadows, Donnella. (n.d.) Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in a System. Retrieved from
2) Written in consultation with Laura Johnson Collard, Maryland Association for Environmental and Outdoor Education, and Jamie
Baxter, Chesapeake Bay Funders Network
3) Note that there is no single state-wide assessment to determine environmental literacy in each grade, or specifically for impending
4) Maryland is experiencing a surge in high school enrollment after years of decline; a peak of close to 300,000 is expected in 2023.
5) The act was administered under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare until 1979 when President
Carter created the stand-alone Department of Education, and was repealed in the first year of the Reagan Administration.
6) Currently, half of Maryland’s 24 counties have outdoor education centers which supplement classroom learning with hands-on field
experiences, helping schools in their county educate students.
7) The Maryland Legislature established CBT in 1985. It is funded by dedicated license plate funds and half of voluntary tax checkoff donations to the Chesapeake Bay and Endangered Species Fund, with some additional funds accruing from private donations and
private foundation grants.
8) Written in consultation with Jerry Lieberman, State Education and Environment Roundtable, and Leslie Tamminen, Seventh
9) California’s school system is by far the biggest in the United States. It comprises more than 10,400 schools from pre-K- high school.
The enrollment number includes 570K+ charter school students. Source:
10) Tom Torlakson was elected State Superintendent of Instruction in 2010, and again in 2014. Source:
11) In 2008, climate champion Fran Pavley was elected to represent the 23rd district of the State Senate (now the 27th following 2010
12) Written in consultation with Nancy Bales, Gray Family Foundation, and Rex Burkholder, Social Entrepreneur and Strategist.
13) The measure was sponsored by Senators Roblan & Thomsen, and Representatives Sprenger & Komp, at the request of the Oregon
Outdoor Education Coalition, and pre-session filed. The bill passed the Senate with just one “no” vote, and passed the House
unanimously on a roll call vote. Source:
Dr. James Elder is an expert in environmental and sustainability education policy. He founded and
directs the Campaign for Environmental Literacy, a network of stakeholder groups that seeks to
enlist the federal and state governments in helping to close the nation’s growing environmental
literacy gap. He conceived and led the effort to create the U.S. Department of Education Green
Ribbon Schools and to pass the Higher Education Sustainability Act. He also founded the School
for Field Studies, building it over 17 years into the nation’s leading undergraduate environmental
field program and a pioneering model for sustainability education.